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A structural investigation of polypyrrole as a function of oxidation state

Publication Type:

Conference Paper


Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, Materials Research Society, Volume 871E, San Francisco, p.I6.1 pp. 1-6 (2005)



Polypyrrole exhibits actuation under electrochemical doping and undoping of the polymer matrix. Active strain and x-ray diffraction measurements are performed in order to correlate the microscopic and macroscopic structural changes occurring during actuation. Under galvanostatic reduction, the film shows first a linear contraction with oxidation state due to expulsion of small anions. At 50% of the as-grown doping level, the film reverses direction and begins to expand due to incorporation of the larger cations. X-ray diffraction, however, does not show a linear contraction in the crystalline portions of the polymer. The polymer crystallites go through a sudden contraction in one dimension of approximately 14%, and otherwise remain constant. The contraction in the polypyrrole crystals occurs at the 50% doping level, and appears to be correlated with the reversal of macroscopic actuation.