User login

Polymer artificial muscles

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Mater. Today (Netherlands), Volume 10, Number 4, p.30 - 8 (2007)



carbon nanotubes;conducting polymers;elastomers;electrostriction;intelligent actuators;intelligent materials;manufacturing industries;


The various types of natural muscle are incredible material systems that enable the production of large deformations by repetitive molecular motions. Polymer artificial muscle technologies are being developed that produce similar strains and higher stresses using electrostatic forces, electrostriction, ion insertion, and molecular conformational changes. Materials used include elastomers, conducting polymers, ionically conducting polymers, and carbon nanotubes. The mechanisms, performance, and remaining challenges associated with these technologies are described. Initial applications are being developed, but further work by the materials community should help make these technologies applicable in a wide range of devices where muscle-like motion is desirable. [All rights reserved Elsevier]


polymer artificial muscle;natural muscle;deformation;repetitive molecular motions;electrostatic forces;electrostriction;ion insertion;molecular conformational changes;elastomers;conducting polymers;carbon nanotubes;