%0 Journal Article %J Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America %D 2004 %T Systematic investigation of protein phase behavior with a microfluidic formulator %A Hansen, C L %A Sommer, M O A %A Quake, S R %K egg-white lysozyme, crystal-growth, trichoderma-reesei, crystallization, solubility, diagram, nucleation, assay %M ISI:000224369600024 %P 14431-14436 %U ://000224369600024 %V 101 %X We demonstrated a microfluidic device for rapidly generating complex mixtures of 32 stock reagents in a 5-nl reactor. This "formulation chip" is fully automated and allows thousands of experiments to be performed in a single day with minimal reagent consumption. It was applied to systematically study the phase behavior of the protein xylanase over a large and complex chemical space. For each chemical formulation that demonstrated a pronounced effect on solubility, the protein phase behavior was completely mapped in the chip, generating a set of empirical phase diagrams. This ab initio phase information was used to devise a rational crystallization screen that resulted in 72-fold improvement in successful crystallization hits compared with conventional sparse matrix screens. This formulations tool allows a physics-based approach to protein crystallization that may prove useful in structural genomics efforts. %Z Times Cited: 9