@article { Stoeber2005c, title = {Arrays of Hollow out-of-Plane Microneedles for Drug Delivery}, journal = {Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems}, volume = {14}, year = {2005}, month = {06/2005}, pages = {472-479}, publisher = {ASME/IEEE}, chapter = {472}, abstract = {Drug delivery based on MEMS technology requires an invasive interface such as microneedles, which connects the microsystem with the biological environment. Two-dimensional arrays of rigid hollow microneedles have been fabricated from single-crystal silicon using a combination of deep reactive ion etching and isotropic etching techniques. The fabricated needles are typically 200 mu m long with a wide base and a channel diameter of 40 mu m. The fabrication process allows creating either blunt needles or needles with sharp tips. Their shape and size make these needles extremely suitable for minimally invasive painless epidermal drug delivery. MEMS technology allows for batch fabrication and integration with complex microsystems. Fluid has been successfully injected 100 mu m deep into sample tissue through arrays of microneedles. Needle breakage did not occur during this procedure. Experiments have shown that the modified Bernoulli equation is a good model for liquid flowing through the narrow microneedle lumen.}, URL = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/84/30976/01438417.pdf?arnumber=1438417}, author = {B. Stoeber and D. Liepmann} }