@article { , title = {Solving the "world-to-chip" interface problem with a microfluidic matrix}, journal = {Analytical Chemistry}, volume = {75}, number = {18}, year = {2003}, note = {Times Cited: 33}, pages = {4718-4723}, abstract = {We report an effective solution to the macroscopic/ microfluidic interface issue and demonstrate how microfluidics can achieve impressive economies of scale in reducing the complexity of pipetting operations. Using an N x N microfluidic matrix with N = 20, we performed N-2 = 400 distinct PCR reactions with only 2N + 1 = 41 pipetting steps, compared with the 3N(2) = 1200 steps required with conventional fluid handling. Each vertex of the matrix has a 3-nL reactor, and a single 2-muL aliquot of polymerase is amortized over all 400 independent reactions, thus dramatically reducing sample overhead and minimizing reagent consumption. Beyond PCR, the matrix chip provides a general method to perform chemical and biological experiments with precious reagents in a highly automated fashion.}, keywords = {device, pcr, microchip}, URL = {://000185439300002}, author = {Liu, J. and Hansen, C. and Quake, S. R.} }