@inproceedings { 02a_Rocha-Cretu, title = {The pull-in of symmetrically and asymmetrically driven microstructures and the use in DC voltage references}, journal = {Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2002. IMTC/2002. Proceedings of the 19th IEEE ,Volume: 1 , 21-23 May 2002}, year = {2002}, note = {L.A. Rocha, E. Cretu, R.F. Wolffenbuttel [2002] -_The pull-in of symmetrically and asymmetrically driven microstructures and the use in DC voltage references_, in IMTC2002, The 19th IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, May 21-23}, month = {May 21-23}, pages = {759-764}, type = {inproceedings}, address = {Anchorage, Alaska, USA}, abstract = {Micromechanical structures have been designed, fabricated in silicon and tested for use as on-chip voltage reference Applications are in electrical metrology and in integrated silicon Microsystems. Microbeams of 100 /spl mu/m length, 3 /spl mu/m width and 11 /spl mu/m thickness are electrostatically actuated with a very reproducible pull-in voltage. The structure can be either symmetrically or asymmetrically actuated, resulting in different pull-in voltages, as well as different operational specifications e.g. hysteresis and reproducibility. A two dimensional energy-based analytical model for the static pull-in is derived for both actuation types and compared with measurements. Devices have been designed and fabricated in an epi-poly process. Measurements show a pull-in voltage in the 9.1-9.5 V range for the asymmetric case and 10.5-11 V range for the symmetric case, both in agreement with modeling. }, keywords = {electrostatic actuators hysteresis measurement standards mechanical stability micromachining voltage measurement 10.5 to 11 V 9.1 to 9.5 V DC voltage reference Taylor series asymmetrically driven microstructures electrostatically actuated microbeams epi-p}, URL = {http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/search/srchabstract.jsp?arnumber=1006937&isnumber=21717&punumber=7883&k2dockey=1006937}, author = { Rocha, L.A. and Cretu, E. and Wolffenbuttel, R.F.} }