@article { 04j_rocha-cretu, title = {Compensation of temperature effects on the pull-in voltage of microstructures}, journal = {Sensors and Actuators A}, volume = {115 (The 1}, number = {2-3}, year = {2004}, month = {September 21}, pages = {351-356}, type = {article}, abstract = {The pull-in voltage of a suspended microstructure has been investigated for use as on-chip voltage reference in a compatible MEMS-IC process. Pull-in is detected using capacitive displacement measurement. The stability is affected by an initial parasitic charge build-up and a temperature sensitivity of ?149 V/K. A burn-in procedure is required to minimize the first effect. The temperature coefficient is compensated for by applying additional temperature dependent electrostatic energy to the microstructure. Devices fabricated in an epi-poly process and designed for a nominal pull-in voltage at 5 V have a measured value at 4.7424 V. Drift becomes negligible after 120 h of operation. The temperature reproducibility is within the resolution of the readout at 100 V over a temperature range between 20 and 60 $\,^{\circ}$C.}, keywords = {Microelectromechanical systems; Pull-in voltage; Temperature compensation}, author = { Rocha, L.A. and Cretu, E. and Wolffenbuttel, R.F.} }