@article { Lin2014, title = {Effects of Carbon on Phosphorus Diffusion in SiGe:C and the Implications on Phosphorus Diffusion Mechanisms}, journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS}, volume = {116}, year = {2014}, month = {11/2014}, pages = {14490}, abstract = {The use of carbon (C) in SiGe base layers is an important approach to control the base layer dopant phosphorus (P) diffusion, and thus enhance PNP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) performance. This work quantitatively investigated the carbon impacts on P diffusion in Si0.82Ge0.18:C and Si:C under rapid thermal anneal conditions. The carbon molar fraction is up to 0.32%. The results showed that the carbon retardation effect on P diffusion is less effective for Si0.82Ge0.18:C than for Si:C. In Si0.82Ge0.18:C, there is an optimum carbon content at around 0.05% to 0.1%, beyond which more carbon incorporation does not retard P diffusion any more. This behavior is different from the P diffusion behavior in Si:C and the B in Si:C and low Ge SiGe:C, which can be explained by the decreased interstitial-mediated diffusion fraction f_I^(P,SiGe) to 95% as Ge content increases to 18%. Empirical models were established to calculate the time-averaged point defect concentrations and effective diffusivities as a function of carbon, and was shown to agree with previous studies on boron, phosphorus, arsenic and antimony diffusion with carbon. }, author = {Yiheng Lin, Hiroshi Yasuda, Manfred Schiekofer, Bernhard Benna, Rick Wise and Guangrui (Maggie) Xia} }