@article { Wang:14, title = {Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits}, journal = {Optics Express}, volume = {22}, number = {17}, year = {2014}, month = {08/2014}, pages = {20652--20662}, publisher = {OSA}, type = {article}, abstract = {We demonstrate fully-etched fiber-waveguide grating couplers with sub-wavelength gratings showing high coupling efficiency as well as low back reflections for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes. The power reflection coefficients for the TE and TM modes have been significantly suppressed to ?16.2 dB and ?20.8 dB, respectively. Focusing grating lines have also been used to reduce the footprint of the design. Our sub-wavelength grating couplers for the TE and TM modes show respective measured insertion losses of 4.1 dB and 3.7 dB with 1-dB bandwidths of 30.6 nm (3-dB bandwidth of 52.3 nm) and 47.5 nm (3-dB bandwidth of 81.5 nm), respectively. }, keywords = {Gratings; Effective medium theory ; Subwavelength structures}, URL = {http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-17-20652}, author = {Yun Wang and Xu Wang and Jonas Flueckiger and Han Yun and Wei Shi and Richard Bojko and Nicolas A. F. Jaeger and Lukas Chrostowski } }