@article { Shoa2010Electro-, title = {Electro-stiffening in polypyrrole films: Dependence of Young's modulus on oxidation state, load and frequency}, journal = {SYNtheTIC METALS}, volume = {160}, number = {11-12}, year = {2010}, pages = {1280--1286}, abstract = {Electrochemically driven actuation of polypyrrole in aqueous sodium hexafluorophosphate (NaPF6) solution has been shown to produce repeated large strains (>6%) at low voltages and with high conductivity, making it one of the most promising electroactive conducting polymers. Little is known about the voltage dependent stiffness of this version of the polymer. This information is important in determining the strain as a function of load. In this paper the complex Young's modulus (storage and loss components) of a hexafluorophosphate-doped polypyrrole film in aqueous NaPF6 electrolyte at different oxidation states, under various loads and as a function of the frequency of the applied load, is investigated. Uniformity of doping was ensured by allowing enough time to reach steady state charge levels, and the creep during measurements was minimized by using preconditioning cycles. The results of this study show that storage modulus decreases (from 1 GPa to 0.80 GPa) as the polypyrrole oxidation potential increases (from -0.4V to +0.4V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode). The loss modulus, on the other hand, increases from 55 MPa to 80 MPa. An increasing trend in the Young's modulus is also observed with the applied load. The storage modulus increases from 0.65 GPa to 1 GPa by increasing the applied load from 0.2 MPa to 2.5 MPa. The modulus is found to increase with time through the experiment, which may be due to stretch alignment of the polymer. It is also observed that complex Young's modulus increases in proportion to the logarithm of frequency. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.}, author = {Shoa, T. and Mirfakhrai, T. and Madden, J. D. W.} }