@inproceedings { 5297179, title = {Fabrication by electrodeposition: building 3D structures and polymer actuators}, journal = {MHS'95. Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Micro Machine and Human Science (Cat. No.95TH8079)}, year = {1995}, note = {3D structures;polymer actuators;electrodeposition;inducing local convection;localizing electric field;conducting substrate;pattern writing;high aspect ratio;columns;helical springs;conducting polymers;microactuators;microstructure fabrication;polypyrrole films;bilayer actuators;}, pages = {77 - 81}, type = {inproceedings}, address = {Nagoya, Japan}, abstract = {Electrochemical deposition has traditionally been employed to grow metal coatings (plating) and to fill molds (electroforming). However, by localizing electric field or inducing local convection on a conducting substrate it is possible to write patterns without employing masks or molds. Here we present techniques capable of depositing high aspect ratio, truly 3D structures such as columns and helical springs. Conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polyacetylene, and polypyrrole are routinely employed to fabricate batteries, capacitors, colour displays, and transistors. Here we demonstrate the electrodeposition of polypyrrole films to form bilayer actuators}, keywords = {electrodeposition;electrodeposits;microactuators;micromachining;polymer films;}, URL = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MHS.1995.494221}, author = { Madden, J.D. and Lafontaine, S.R. and Hunter, I.W.} }