@article { 5236048, title = {Three-dimensional microfabrication by localized electrochemical deposition}, journal = {J. Microelectromech. Syst. (USA)}, volume = {5}, number = {1}, year = {1996}, note = {microfabrication;localized electrochemical deposition;three-dimensional metal structures;multicoiled helical spring;mass transport;plating;Ni;}, pages = {24 - 32}, type = {article}, abstract = {A microfabrication technology capable of electrodepositing truly three-dimensional metal structures is introduced. Micrometer-scale nickel structures including a multicoiled helical spring have been fabricated. Electrodeposition is localized by placing a sharp-tipped electrode in a plating solution, near a substrate, and applying a voltage. Structures are built by moving the electrode appropriately with respect to the substrate. Vertical deposition rates of 6 μm/s are observed, two orders of magnitude greater than those of conventional electrodeposition. The theory of mass transport to a region of localized field is discussed, and a model of deposition profile is presented. The process can potentially produce submicrometer feature sizes using a range of materials including pure metals, alloys, and polymers}, keywords = {electrochemistry;electroplating;micromechanical devices;nickel;}, URL = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/84.485212}, author = { Madden, J.D. and Hunter, I.W.} }