@inproceedings { 7757483, title = {Recent advances in thiophene based molecular actuators}, journal = {Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (USA)}, volume = {5051}, year = {2003}, note = {molecular actuators;bulk actuation mechanisms;ion intercalation;quarterthiophene;molecular design;film brittleness;conducting polymer;}, pages = {42 - 53}, type = {inproceedings}, address = {San Diego, CA, USA}, abstract = {A new class of molecular actuators where bulk actuation mechanisms such as ion intercalation are enhanced by controllable single molecule conformational rearrangements offers great promise to exhibit large active strains at moderate stresses. Initial activation of poly(quarterthiophene) based molecular muscles, for example, show active strains in the order of 20%. Molecular rearrangements in these conjugated polymers are believed to be driven by the formation of π-dimers (e.g. the tendency of π orbitals to align due to Pauli's exclusion principle) upon oxidation of the material creating thermodynamically stable molecular aggregates. Such thiophene based polymers, however, suffer from being brittle and difficult to handle. Polymer composites of the active polymer with a sulfated polymeric anion were therefore created and studied to increase the mechanical robustness of the films. This additional polyelectrolyte is a Sulfated Poly-β-Hydroxy Ether (S-PHE) designed to form a supporting elastic matrix for the new contractile compounds. Co-deposition of the polyanion with the conducting polymer material provides an elastic mechanical support to the relatively stiff conjugated polymer molecules, thus reducing film brittleness. The active properties of such poly(quarterthiophene)/S-PHE polymer actuator composites based on intrinsic molecular contractile units are presented and discussed}, keywords = {intelligent actuators;polymers;}, URL = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.484412}, author = { Anquetil, P.A. and Yu, Hsiao-hua and Madden, J.D. and Swager, T.M. and Hunter, I.W.} }